The Data-Information Hierarchy, Part 3

The Data-Information Hierarchy is frequently represented as
Data –> Information –> Knowledge –> Understanding –> Wisdom.

Or it is sometimes shortened to 4 steps, omitting Understanding. But, in fact, there are two predecessor steps: chaos and symbol. These concepts have been discussed in prior blogs


Chaos is that state of lack of understanding best compared to the baby first perceiving the world around him. There is no comprehension of quantities or values, but a perception of large and small.

Symbol (or symbolic representation) represents the first stages of quantification. As such, symbolic representation and quantification concepts from the predecessor to Data.

So the expanded Data-Information hierarchy is represented in the seven steps:

Chaos –>
Symbol –>
Data –>
Information –>
Knowledge –>
Understanding –>

Continuing with this Data-Hierarchy paradigm, we can represent the five primary steps with the simple explanation:

  • Data and Information : ‘Know What’
  • Knowledge : ‘Know How’
  • Understanding : ‘Know Why’
  • Wisdom : ‘Use It’